Introduction to Systems

Discrete-Time Integrators

A discrete-time integrator implemented through a forward difference and a backward difference technique

An integrator is a very important filter that proves useful in implementation of many blocks of a communication receiver. In continuous-time case, an integrator finds the area under the curve of a signal amplitude. A discrete-time system deals with just…
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Moving Average Filter

Coefficients of a moving average filter in time domain

The most commonly used filter in DSP applications is a moving average filter. In today’s world with extremely fast clock speeds of the microprocessors, it seems strange that an application would require simple operations. But that is exactly the case…
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Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters

Time and frequency response of a lowpass FIR filter designed with Parks-McClellan algorithm for N=33

We learned in the concept of frequency that most signals of practical interest can be considered as a sum of complex sinusoids oscillating at different frequencies. The amplitudes and phases of these sinusoids shape the frequency contents of that signal…
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What is a System?

A system with input and output

In wireless communications and other applications of digital signal processing, we often want to modify a generated or acquired signal. A device or algorithm that performs some prescribed operations on an input signal to generate an output signal is called…
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Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)

Computing noise power within a specified bandwidth

The performance of a digital communication system is quantified by the probability of bit detection errors in the presence of thermal noise. In the context of wireless communications, the main source of thermal noise is addition of random signals arising…
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