Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) concept

Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) – A Tutorial

For each generation of cellular networks, there is a significant jump in data rates due to the rising demand and novel use cases from emerging applications and associated ecosystems. Some examples in 6G networks are driverless and collaborative transportation, joint communication, localization and sensing, e-health and tactile Internet. Therefore, at the start of each concept-to-deployment cycle, engineers and researchers propose, evaluate and experiment with new ideas, preferably one or two disruptive technologies that can help them meet their targets. For 5G systems, these technologies appeared in the form of a large number of antennas (massive MIMO) and usage of higher

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Electromagnetic spectrum

On TeraHertz (THz) Band for Wireless Communication

Larger bandwidth has been the single most contributing factor in higher data rates throughout the history of wireless communication. In the past decade, this resulted in expansion towards mmWave bands that were adopted in 5G systems. Now the trend is continuing towards Tera Hz (THz) bands where large swathes of bandwidth are available for instantaneous and seamless transfer of huge amounts of information. This is because symbol rate $R_M$ is directly proportional to the bandwidth in digitally modulated signals. \[ R_M=\frac{1}{T_M} \propto B \] This is shown in the figure below where a high data rate implies a short symbol

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