A Beginner’s Guide to OFDM

OFDM slices the spectrum just like a bread

In the recent past, high data rate wireless communications is often considered synonymous to an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system. OFDM is a special case of multi-carrier communication as opposed to a conventional single-carrier system.  The concepts on which…
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Effect of Time Shift in Frequency Domain

Symbolic representation of linear phase rotation that changes with frequency index

Children usually ask questions like “How many hours have passed?” And they have no idea about the start time to be taken as a reference. Just like the zero of a measuring tape, a zero reference for time plays a…
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Basic Signals

Number of goals scored by player 1 in each match

Classification of continuous-time and discrete-time signals deals with the type of independent variable. If the signal amplitude is defined for every possible value of time, the signal is called a continuous-time signal. However, if the signal takes values at specific…
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The Arrival of 6G


Recently, IEEE Communications Society published an article “What will 6G be?” Some of the important points it highlighted are the following. More spectrum is needed for more bits: As with all new Gs, more spectrum is needed to entertain more…
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Linear Frequency Invariant (LFI) Systems

In this post, as opposed to our usual notation of a capital letter for a frequency domain signal, e.g., S(F), we introduce a small letter like s(F) instead to highlight the fact that the system is linear frequency-invariant, and not…
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