How to Estimate the Carrier Phase

A block diagram for the implementation of the feedforward phase estimator

In this article, I will describe how to estimate the carrier phase from an incoming waveform in a feedforward manner. This algorithm utilizes a sequence of known pilot symbols embedded within the signal along with the unknown data symbols. Such…
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Effect of Time Shift in Frequency Domain

Symbolic representation of linear phase rotation that changes with frequency index

Children usually ask questions like “How many hours have passed?” And they have no idea about the start time to be taken as a reference. Just like the zero of a measuring tape, a zero reference for time plays a…
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Basic Signals

Number of goals scored by player 1 in each match

Classification of continuous-time and discrete-time signals deals with the type of independent variable. If the signal amplitude is defined for every possible value of time, the signal is called a continuous-time signal. However, if the signal takes values at specific…
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The Arrival of 6G

6G

Recently, IEEE Communications Society published an article “What will 6G be?” Some of the important points it highlighted are the following. More spectrum is needed for more bits: As with all new Gs, more spectrum is needed to entertain more…
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There are 26 letters in English language and countless rules. The language of signal processing is simpler.

- It has only 1 letter: a sample at time 0. From there, we can build any discrete-time signal on which our 1s and 0s can be mapped.

- It has one major rule which is repeatedly employed for demapping the received signal to bits.


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