Costas Loop for Carrier Phase Synchronization

Output from the Costas Loop block after phase convergence

Costas loop is a carrier phase synchronization solution devised by John Costas at General Electric Company in 1956 [1]. It had an enormous impact on modem signal processing in general and carrier synchronization in particular. At that time, it was…
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The Big Picture of Localization

Two way transmission

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) enables us to find the range of a device transmitting a wireless signal with a particular structure under some conditions. To understand how this process works, we need to look at the big picture of a…
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FSK Demodulation in GNU Radio

Flowgraph output

One of the most useful modulation techniques in applications requiring low receiver complexity is Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). In an FSK scheme, digital information is transmitted by changing the frequency of a carrier signal. Binary FSK Binary FSK (BFSK) is…
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There are 26 letters in English language and countless rules. The language of signal processing is simpler.

- It has only 1 letter: a sample at time 0. From there, we can build any discrete-time signal on which our 1s and 0s can be mapped.

- It has one major rule which is repeatedly employed for demapping the received signal to bits.