Discrete-Time Integrators

A discrete-time integrator implemented through a forward difference and a backward difference technique

An integrator is a very important filter that proves useful in implementation of many blocks of a communication receiver. In continuous-time case, an integrator finds the area under the curve of a signal amplitude. A discrete-time system deals with just…
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Moving Average Filter

Coefficients of a moving average filter in time domain

The most commonly used filter in DSP applications is a moving average filter. In today’s world with extremely fast clock speeds of the microprocessors, it seems strange that an application would require simple operations. But that is exactly the case…
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There are 26 letters in English language and countless rules. The language of signal processing is simpler.

- It has only 1 letter: a sample at time 0. From there, we can build any discrete-time signal on which our 1s and 0s can be mapped.

- It has one major rule which is repeatedly employed for demapping the received signal to bits.