A quarter sample rate complex sinusoid

Spectral Shift without any Multiplications

One of the great advantages of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is an unexpected simplification of operations in seemingly complicated scenarios. See the Cascade Integrator Comb (CIC) filters for how to accomplish the task of sample rate conversion along with filtering with minimal resources. As another example, in wireless communications and many other applications, a frequency translation is often required in which the spectrum of a signal centered at a particular frequency needs to be moved to another frequency. From the properties of Fourier Transform, a shift by frequency $\omega_0=2\pi F_0$ requires sample-by-sample multiplication with a complex sinusoid $e^{j\omega_0 t}$. \[

Continue reading
Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) concept

Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) – A Tutorial

For each generation of cellular networks, there is a significant jump in data rates due to the rising demand and novel use cases from emerging applications and associated ecosystems. Some examples in 6G networks are driverless and collaborative transportation, joint communication, localization and sensing, e-health and tactile Internet. Therefore, at the start of each concept-to-deployment cycle, engineers and researchers propose, evaluate and experiment with new ideas, preferably one or two disruptive technologies that can help them meet their targets. For 5G systems, these technologies appeared in the form of a large number of antennas (massive MIMO) and usage of higher

Continue reading
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a DFT-even sequence

The Beauty of Symmetry in Fourier Transform

In 1978, Fred Harris was a relatively unknown faculty member at the San Diego State University when he published his landmark paper titled On the use of windows for harmonic analysis with the discrete Fourier transform. That paper made him a superstar in DSP community. It presented a brief overview of signal windows and their impact on the detection of harmonic signals in the presence of broad-band noise and nearby harmonic interference. More importantly, he pointed out several common errors in the application of windows when used in the context of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Today I am going to

Continue reading
Computation of the metric involves a correlation sum at a time difference of half symbol duration

Timing Synchronization in OFDM Systems

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been the vehicle driving most high rate wireless communication systems in the world today. Some of the notable examples are our WiFi, 4G and 5G technologies. See the interesting LoRa PHY for modulation techniques based on frequency shift – chirp spread spectrum that utilize many of the concepts from OFDM for algorithm design. As a background, we have also discussed before the impact of a timing error on an OFDM signal. It was observed that an integer timing offset does have affect the performance as long as it within certain boundaries. A fractional timing

Continue reading
Electromagnetic spectrum

On TeraHertz (THz) Band for Wireless Communication

Larger bandwidth has been the single most contributing factor in higher data rates throughout the history of wireless communication. In the past decade, this resulted in expansion towards mmWave bands that were adopted in 5G systems. Now the trend is continuing towards Tera Hz (THz) bands where large swathes of bandwidth are available for instantaneous and seamless transfer of huge amounts of information. This is because symbol rate $R_M$ is directly proportional to the bandwidth in digitally modulated signals. \[ R_M=\frac{1}{T_M} \propto B \] This is shown in the figure below where a high data rate implies a short symbol

Continue reading