QAM constellation diagrams for M = 4, 16 and 64

QAM Constellations in Digital Communication Standards

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is one of the most spectrally efficient modulation schemes. This is why it is used in a wide range of digital and wireless communication systems. Recently, Ref. [1] describes a list of QAM schemes used in the standards as below which I think can be useful for an interested reader. Standard QAM Alphabet Size $M$ Bits/Symbol $\log_2 M$ Digital Video Broadcasting – Cable (DVB-C) 16 to 256 4 to 8 Digital Video Broadcasting – Cable 2 (DVB-C2) 16 to 4096 4 to 12 Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial (DVB-T) 16 and 64 4 and 6 Digital

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mmWave and THz bands

An Introduction to mmWave Band

Rising wireless traffic demands a continuous improvement in aggregate data rates delivered within a geographical area. One of the fundamental resources to achieve this goal is increasing the bandwidth. A wider bandwidth directly translates into higher throughput, just like increasing the number of lanes on a road directly impacts the traffic handled at peak times. This is the original reason for opening up the higher GHz and THz bands where vast amounts of empty spectrum is available. A bird’s eye view of the history of wireless transmission reveals that the wireless throughput increase during the past century has relied far

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For the same area and their spacing (with respect to the wavelength), the number of elements in the array at high band is larger thus capturing a similar or increased amount of power

Free Space Propagation in mmWave Systems

In this article, we describe the free space propagation in mmWave systems. During the discussion, we dispel a common myth that the received power at any distance decays with increasing carrier frequency. We will see that the received power is in fact independent of the carrier frequency for suitably designed systems such as those at mmWave frequencies. Instead, it is only after including the atmospheric effects such as water vapors, oxygen, rain and penetration loss in materials that the carrier frequency plays a substantial role in establishing the link budget. Suppose that a Tx transmits $P_{\text{Tx}}$ watts of power uniformly

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Coverage and throughput in different bands

Channel Propagation Effects in mmWave Systems

In a previous article, we have discussed in detail the free space propagation in mmWave systems. We saw that the received power at any distance is independent of the carrier frequency as long as the effective antenna aperture is taken into account. Today, we describe the role of atmospheric effects such as water vapors, oxygen, rain and penetration loss in materials that impact the signal propagation at higher carrier frequencies. Important parameters of small-scale fading in a wireless channel such as delay spread and Doppler spread are also explained in the context of mmWave systems. Atmospheric Effects In realistic channels,

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