## Why Digital Communication is Superior to Analog Communication

At the beginning, the history of wireless communication revolved around analog communication systems for several decades. Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM) were the most widely used techniques during this time. Gradually, however, a transition towards digital transmission occurred in wireless systems as well, a phenomenon that was in sync with digital revolution in the society as a whole. So what are the main benefits of digital technology that made it much superior to its analog counterpart? Let us analyze some of them below [1]. Performance Analog signals suffer from distortion and noise, even if they are small. Although

## A Unit Impulse in Continuous-Time

This post treats the signals in continuous time which is different than the approach I adopted in my book which deals exclusively in discrete time. A unit impulse is defined as \begin{equation*} \delta (t) = \displaystyle{\lim_{\Delta \to 0}} \begin{cases} \frac{1}{\Delta} & -\frac{\Delta}{2} < t < +\frac{\Delta}{2} \\ 0 & \text{elsewhere} \end{cases} \end{equation*} The result is an impulse with zero width and infinite height, but a consequence of defining it in this way is that the area under the curve is unity. \begin{equation*} \text{Area under a rectangle} = \Delta \cdot \frac{1}{\Delta} = 1 \end{equation*} This is shown in Figure below. Stated

## The Concept of Frequency

A wireless signal from one device to another travels through the use of electromagnetic waves propagated by an antenna. Electromagnetic waves have different frequencies and one can pick up a specific signal by tuning a radio Rx to a specific frequency. But what is a frequency anyway? Watch the video below for an interesting description of actual time domain samples and how to interpret their frequency domain representation. A Complex Sinusoid Consider a complex number $V$ in an $IQ$-plane. A complex number is defined as a pair of real numbers in $(x,y)$-plane similar to the vectors but with different arithmetic