Data symbols riding on the subcarriers experience a rotation due to residual carrier frequency offset and sampling frequency offset

Effect of a Sampling Clock Offset on an OFDM Waveform

In an earlier article on the impact of a sampling clock offset on a single-carrier waveform, we explained the nature of a Sampling Clock Offset (SCO), i.e., a difference in sampling clock frequency between the Tx and the Rx. This is also known as a symbol timing frequency offset. The meaning of a sampling clock offset for a slow Rx clock that skips some samples within an interval is visually demonstrated in the figure below. In the context of OFDM systems, a previous article describes how the normalized Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) and the normalized Symbol Timing Offset (STO) affect

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Region where likelihood function is non-zero

Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Clock Offset

When I started my PhD, one of the first papers I read was On Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Clock Offset by Daniel Jeske [1] from University of California, Riverside. It eventually set the direction of my future research and ultimately my PhD dissertation. I found this paper quite interesting as it talked about the estimation of clock phase offset. Later I went on to explore what was missing here (the clock frequency offset) and more. Keep in mind that carrier phase estimation is a different problem that has already been discussed in the past here, here and here. Most of

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Working of an Early-Late TED

On the Link Between Gardner Timing Error Detector and Early-Late Timing Error Detector

This post is written on an advanced topic mainly for practitioners and researchers in the design of wireless systems. For learning about wireless communication systems from a DSP perspective (the idea behind SDRs), I recommend you have a look at my book. F. M. Gardner described his well known Timing Error Detector (TED) — known as Gardner TED — in his often cited article [1]. Gardner was a pioneer in the area of synchronization and Phase Locked Loops (PLL). Later, M. Oerder (a student of Heinrich Meyr) derived this scheme from the maximum likelihood principle in [2]. Heinrich Meyr is

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Time domain formation of a Raised Cosine pulse for unity excess bandwidth

How Excess Bandwidth Governs Timing Recovery in Digital Communication Systems

In the article on pulse shaping, we described the excess bandwidth, also known as roll-off factor, as the extra fractional bandwidth required to shape the spectrum. As it turns out, this excess bandwidth is also crucial for accomplishing timing synchronization in single-carrier systems due to its participation in generating spectral timing lines. Spectral Timing Lines Since a data stream consists of a sequence of 1s and 0s, the signal waveform is not a pure clock. Instead, a series of 1s and 0s appear in random order. The purpose of timing synchronization is to extract a clock out of this waveform.

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Logic behind Mueller Muller TED

Mueller and Muller Timing Synchronization Algorithm

Proposed in 1976, Mueller and Muller algorithm is a timing synchronization technique that operates at symbol rate, as opposed to most other synchronization algorithms that require at least 2 samples/symbol such as early-late and Gardner timing error detectors. All of these are feedback techniques that operate within a PLL. Feedforward methods such as digital filter and square timing synchronization are also feasible due to powerful digital signal processing that avoids feedback problems such as hangups. The most confusing thing communication engineers and radio hobbyists find about Mueller and Muller algorithm algorithm is the cross product in its expression: matched filter

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