Diversity implies two or more independent replicas of the same information

Multiple Antenna Techniques

When computing approaches the physical limits of clocking speeds, we turn towards multi-core architectures. When communication approaches the physical limits of transmission speeds, we turn towards multi-antenna systems. What exactly are the benefits that led to scientists and engineers choosing multiple antennas as the foundation of 4G and 5G PHY layers? While having spatial diversity was the original incentive for adding antennas at the base stations, it was discovered in mid 1990s that multiple antennas at Tx and/or Rx sides open up other possibilities not foreseen in single antenna systems. Let us now describe three main techniques in this context.

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Converting Spatial Diversity into Time and Frequency Diversity

We have seen before that diversity implies using two or more statistically independent replicas for the transfer of the same information. This improves the reliability of the received message because nothing can recover the data signal in a deep fade except getting more copies of the same message. Spatial diversity has also been discussed in the context of multiple antenna systems. In this article, we describe how this diversity arising from the presence of multiple antennas can be converted into time or frequency diversity. Delay diversity converts spatial diversity into frequency diversity Phase-roll diversity converts spatial diversity into time diversity

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Earth lies in the Goldilocks Zone of our solar system

Diversity in Wireless Communication Systems

Diversity is one of those few ideas that are extremely dumb and extremely clever at the same time. It can be explained in one sentence as well as in a whole book. The basic idea, nevertheless, is quite simple. What is Diversity? Consider the following two different cases. Many phenomena in the world need a series of outcomes to succeed. For instance, for life to exist in the cold and dark universe, we need a star to provide energy as heat. A planet is also required as a home. Furthermore, this planet must reside in the Goldilocks Zone of that

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