A description of a real space-time code

Understanding Space-Time Codes: Alamouti Scheme

In major cellular and wireless networks today, space diversity is employed with the help of multiple Tx antennas and/or multiple Rx antennas giving rise to Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems. There are three different modes in which multiple antennas can be deployed: Beamforming Spatial Multiplexing Space-Time Coding In this article, we discuss space-time coding that achieves Tx diversity through multiple antennas at the Tx and simple linear processing at the Rx. This simplicity made this technique quite suitable for the past generations of cellular and other infrastructure based networks. There are two main kinds of space-time codes: Space-Time Block

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An intuitive way to understand the maximum ratio transmission

Maximum Ratio Transmission (MRT)

In Maximum Ratio Combination (MRC), our focus was on combining the signals from multiple antennas at the Rx side. Here, we will see how a similar system can be developed with multiple antennas at the Tx side. As our first consideration, we attempt to replicate the results of Rx diversity in a scenario where there are multiple Tx antennas and a single Rx antenna. This is commonly known as a Multiple-Input Single Output (MISO) system. Assume that there are $N_T$ Tx antennas available and only a single Rx antenna as shown in the figure below. This is a dual problem

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Constructive and destructive interference arising from the different delays of multipath

Small-Scale Fading in a Wireless Channel

Small-scale fading is a phenomenon that arises due to the unguided nature of the wireless medium. Dramatic variations in signal amplitude occur at the Rx from constructive and destructive interference of multipath components originating from the surrounding environment that give rise to small-scale fading. This is the main challenge for designing efficient high-rate wireless communication systems which spawned an array of research activities in the past 50 years aimed to bring the wireless transmission rates closer to their wire counterparts. The technologies for 5G systems have been chosen with the benefit of experience gained from actual implementations over these years.

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Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) cancels the phase and grades the magnitudes according to each channel gain

Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)

In the discussion on diversity, we described in detail the idea of space diversity through an example of Selection Combining (SC). Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) is another space diversity scheme that embodies the concept behind generalized beamforming — the main technology in 5G cellular systems. Let us find out how. Setup Consider a wireless link with 2 Tx antenna and 2 (or more) Rx antennas as shown in the figure below. At each symbol time, a data symbol $s$ is transmitted which belongs to a Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) scheme. To focus on the events happening within one symbol time

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Conventional network coding

Physical Layer Network Coding (PNC)

A wired channel such as an optical fiber or a coaxial cable carries the communication signal within a confined material. In contrast, a wireless channel has a broadcast nature in which the transmitted signal propagates in a 3D space in several directions. This gives rise to the multipath nature of this medium. In a multiuser scenario, this problem takes an interesting turn. A signal transmitted by any node reaches several nodes due to this property. Except the one for which the signal is intended, each node treats this transmission as an interference which is overcome through careful receiver design or

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