## Maximum Ratio Transmission (MRT)

In Maximum Ratio Combination (MRC), our focus was on combining the signals from multiple antennas at the Rx side. Here, we will see how a similar system can be developed with multiple antennas at the Tx side. As our first consideration, we attempt to replicate the results of Rx diversity in a scenario where there are multiple Tx antennas and a single Rx antenna. This is commonly known as a Multiple-Input Single Output (MISO) system. Assume that there are $N_T$ Tx antennas available and only a single Rx antenna as shown in the figure below. This is a dual problem

## How Excess Bandwidth Governs Timing Recovery in Digital Communication Systems

In the article on pulse shaping, we described the excess bandwidth, also known as roll-off factor, as the extra fractional bandwidth required to shape the spectrum. As it turns out, this excess bandwidth is also crucial for accomplishing timing synchronization in single-carrier systems due to its participation in generating spectral timing lines. Spectral Timing Lines Since a data stream consists of a sequence of 1s and 0s, the signal waveform is not a pure clock. Instead, a series of 1s and 0s appear in random order. The purpose of timing synchronization is to extract a clock out of this waveform.

## QAM Constellations in Digital Communication Standards

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is one of the most spectrally efficient modulation schemes. This is why it is used in a wide range of digital and wireless communication systems. Recently, Ref. [1] describes a list of QAM schemes used in the standards as below which I think can be useful for an interested reader. Standard QAM Alphabet Size $M$ Bits/Symbol $\log_2 M$ Digital Video Broadcasting – Cable (DVB-C) 16 to 256 4 to 8 Digital Video Broadcasting – Cable 2 (DVB-C2) 16 to 4096 4 to 12 Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial (DVB-T) 16 and 64 4 and 6 Digital

## CDMA or OFDM

Reading about interference cancellation techniques today, I recalled an interesting article by Sridhar Vembu titled Two Philosophies in CDMA: A Stroll Down Memory Lane. Vembu is the founder and CEO of Zoho Corporation, a venture which has turned him into a billionaire. He spent time both in academia (at Princeton) and in industry (at Qualcomm) working with the likes of Sergio Verdu in one camp and Andrew Viterbi in the other. Here are some excerpts from his article which is not available online anymore at the time of this writing. I have now worked a little over 10 years in

## What is Pilot Contamination in Massive MIMO?

5G NR standard supports both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes in massive MIMO systems. For a reasonably pure estimate, it is necessary to make sure that each pilot transmission in a cell occurs in a vacuum, i.e., free from the interference of other pilots in the same time or frequency. This is achieved through orthogonality or separation of training signals in time or frequency slots. As we see now, simple orthogonality is not enough and new problems emerge due to the interaction among different cells in a network. Uplink A set of orthogonal pilots in