Constructive and destructive interference arising from the different delays of multipath

Small-Scale Fading in a Wireless Channel

Small-scale fading is a phenomenon that arises due to the unguided nature of the wireless medium. Dramatic variations in signal amplitude occur at the Rx from constructive and destructive interference of multipath components originating from the surrounding environment that give rise to small-scale fading. This is the main challenge for designing efficient high-rate wireless communication systems which spawned an array of research activities in the past 50 years aimed to bring the wireless transmission rates closer to their wire counterparts. The technologies for 5G systems have been chosen with the benefit of experience gained from actual implementations over these years.

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Output from the Costas Loop block after phase convergence

Costas Loop for Carrier Phase Synchronization

Costas loop is a carrier phase synchronization solution devised by John Costas at General Electric Company in 1956 [1]. It had an enormous impact on modem signal processing in general and carrier synchronization in particular. At that time, it was customary to send a pilot tone for carrier synchronization along with the data signal which consumed a significant amount of power. Costas was one of the earliest scientists to demonstrate that the carrier phase could be reliably recovered from the Rx signal without the need of a pilot tone. In words of Costas, "It is unfortunate that many engineers tend

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Early-Late Bit Synchronizer in Digital Communication

In an article on Phase Locked Loop (PLL) for symbol timing recovery, we described an intuitive view of a maximum likelihood Timing Error Detector (TED). We saw that the timing matched filter is constructed by computing the derivative of the matched filter and consequently its output is the derivative of the input signal. Naturally, this output is more fine-grained and hence accurate when the number of samples/symbol $L$ is large. Here, $L$ must be several times larger than the minimum limit set by the Nyquist theorem. However, in most applications, reducing the complexity of the timing locked loop is far

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A V-BLAST architecture for 4 Tx antennas

V-BLAST with Successive Interference Cancelation

In the article on Zero-Forcing detector for MIMO receivers, we have seen that the performance of linear detectors is unsatisfactory for actual implementations of conventional MIMO systems. Their main attraction comes from their low computational complexity. To strike a nice balance between performance and complexity, a neat trick is employed by the algorithm known as Successive Interference Cancelation (SIC). The concept was devised by Gerard Foschini from Bell Labs, although it was not a new idea. Successive interference cancelation was already proposed for the detection algorithms in CDMA systems. Again, the fundamental idea was borrowed from decision feedback equalization schemes

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Logic behind Mueller Muller TED

Mueller and Muller Timing Synchronization Algorithm

Proposed in 1976, Mueller and Muller algorithm is a timing synchronization technique that operates at symbol rate, as opposed to most other synchronization algorithms that require at least 2 samples/symbol such as early-late and Gardner timing error detectors. All of these are feedback techniques that operate within a PLL. Feedforward methods such as digital filter and square timing synchronization are also feasible due to powerful digital signal processing that avoids feedback problems such as hangups. The most confusing thing communication engineers and radio hobbyists find about Mueller and Muller algorithm algorithm is the cross product in its expression: matched filter

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