Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) – A Tutorial

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) is one of the most spectrally efficient modulation schemes available. Due to its constant envelope, it is resilient to non-linear distortion and was therefore chosen as the modulation technique for the GSM cell phone standard. MSK…
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Basics of Synchronization

Known training sequence (a preamble) is prepended, or training can also be inserted periodically within the message

In every digital communication system, the Tx has the easier role of signal generation while the Rx has the tougher job of figuring out the intended message. Just like solving a puzzle told by someone. Estimating and compensating for the…
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The Master Algorithm

Definition of correlation

Recently, I was reading the book The Master Algorithm by Pedro Domingos — a Professor at the University of Washington in machine learning. According to the description of his book, The Master Algorithm in Machine Learning A spell-binding quest for…
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Sampling and the Mysterious Scaling Factor

An atom and the solar system

This post treats the signals in continuous time which is different than the approach I adopted in my book. The book deals exclusively in discrete time. Some time ago, I came across an interesting problem. In the explanation of sampling…
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