A beam formation process can be seen in water waves by throwing two stones

Beamforming – Mindfulness of an Antenna Array

If beamforming has to be explained in the most succinct manner, it is the mindfulness of an antenna array where it focuses its attention towards one specific location (or a few specific locations). We find out in this article how it is achieved. As opposed to its reputation, beamforming is not a mysterious technology. It has been used by signal processing engineers for radio applications since long. For example, Marconi used four antennas to increase the gain of signal transmissions across the Atlantic in 1901. It has also been known since 1970s that multiple antennas at the base station help

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The counter, register and Tx and Rx start events

There and Back Again: Time of Flight Ranging between Two Wireless Nodes

With the growth in the Internet of Things (IoT) products, the number of applications requiring an estimate of range between two wireless nodes in indoor channels is growing very quickly as well. Therefore, localization is becoming a red hot market today and will remain so in the coming years. See the big picture of localization for general solutions to this problem. One question that is perplexing is that many companies now a days are offering cm level accurate solutions using RF signals. The conventional wireless nodes usually implement synchronization techniques which can provide around $\mu s$ level accuracy and if

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Maximum velocity in an FMCW radar

FMCW Radar Part 3 – Design Guidelines

The Bloom’s Taxonomy describes the levels of mastery one attains in a field. Its last two stages are Synthesis and Evaluation. This is where the masters can be differentiated from the experts. In a job interview, for example, a good technique to judge a candidate’s ability is to ask them where the system in question breaks. A little learning is a dangerous thing Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain And drinking largely sobers us again While the first two parts of the FMCW radar series addressed the lower levels, Part 3 is

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Setup for Differential Phase Difference of Arrival (DPDoA)

Location Estimation through Differential Phase Difference of Arrival

In an article on carrier phase based ranging, we saw how phase observations were employed to find the range between two wireless devices. Today we explore how phase can also be used for the purpose of location estimation. Background To determine the position of a wireless device, its range needs to be computed from a set of anchor nodes. When these anchors and the device itself are synchronized with each other, the signal propagation time of an electromagnetic wave arriving at these anchors after its emission from a Tx can be employed to calculate the corresponding distances. This is the

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