A discrete-time FM demodulator block diagram with atan2 and derivative filter

Frequency Modulation (FM) and Demodulation Using DSP Techniques

Frequency Modulation (FM) is as old as the history of wireless communications itself. The past few decades saw the rise of digital signal processing in all spheres of life that pervaded even the implementation of analog modulation schemes. Today many of the FM systems are built using discrete-time techniques instead of the conventional circuitry as described below. Frequency Modulation In digital communications, data is sent through altering a characteristic of an electromagnetic wave such as amplitude, frequency or phase in discrete steps (e.g., $M$ number of levels). Such systems are known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

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Multiple paths arriving at the Rx with different strengths and delays

Carrier Phase-Based Ranging in Indoor Multipath Channels

Indoor positioning is one of the core technologies behind the idea of Internet of Things (IoT). Some of the use cases are asset tracking and management, factory automation systems, virtual and augmented reality applications, social media relevance and precision marketing in shopping malls. Distances between wireless devices can be determined through various ranging techniques that were introduced in the big picture of localization. Among the candidates, phase based ranging is a low-cost and accurate method that can be implemented on cheap hardware and deployed in real scenarios with relative ease (even in the absence of synchronization among nodes). In this

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Converging towards angle 30

Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CoRDiC)

Digitial Signal Processing (DSP) plays a crucial role in algorithm implmentation for building digital and wireless communication systems. A common theme in all those algorithms is that they can be implemented with the following simple operations: addition multiplication shift In fact, these are the basic principles on which a digital signal processor is constructed. However, when it comes to implementation of real-time systems in hardware such as FPGAs, we find ways to reduce the complexity even further. Which operation (out of the above three) do you think is the most demanding in computations? It is the multiplications. Therefore, it is

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Linear approximation of atan2

3 Ways to Approximate atan2( ) in Hardware

When we think about signal processing, the focus is usually magnitude response of a system. However, in several DSP applications, the signal phase holds as much, if not more, significance as the magnitude response. For example, in digital FM demodulation, carrier phase synchronization and RF ranging, the phase (found through arctangent in four quadrants) of a complex signal needs to be computed by an FPGA or a DSP for further processing. In image processing applications, such an operation is also required to calculate the gradient orientations used in several popular feature descriptors like the Scale-Independent Feature Transform (SIFT) or the

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A discrete-time PLL with a PI loop filter and an NCO consisting of a phase accumulator and a Look-Up Table (LUT)

Phase Locked Loop (PLL) in a Software Defined Radio (SDR)

IBM Watson and Google DeepMind are the most complex computers that, some believe, will try to run the world in a distant future. A PLL on the other hand is the simplest computer that actually runs so much of the world as a fundamental component of intelligent electronic circuits. The PLL was invented by the French engineer Henri de Bellescize in 1932 when he published his first implementation in the French journal L’Onde Electrique. A Phase Locked Loop (PLL) is a device used to synchronize a periodic waveform with a reference periodic waveform. In essence, it is an automatic control

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