Multipath components with large Doppler shifts compared to the signal bandwidth

Slow and Fast Fading in Wireless Channels

We discussed the idea of fading in wireless channels in a previous article. To understand different types of fading in the context of time variations, refer to the figure below that shows a multipath channel. Slow Fading A slow motion scenario is illustrated in the figure below where three multipath components are arriving with Doppler shifts $F_{D,i}$ from the carrier frequency. In this scenario, the magnitudes of $F_{D,i}$ are small and hence observe very little spreading of the cumulative spectrum. This can be understood by recalling that when two sinusoids with two different frequencies $F_1$ and $F_2$ are added, the

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For the same area and their spacing (with respect to the wavelength), the number of elements in the array at high band is larger thus capturing a similar or increased amount of power

Free Space Propagation in mmWave Systems

In this article, we describe the free space propagation in mmWave systems. During the discussion, we dispel a common myth that the received power at any distance decays with increasing carrier frequency. We will see that the received power is in fact independent of the carrier frequency for suitably designed systems such as those at mmWave frequencies. Instead, it is only after including the atmospheric effects such as water vapors, oxygen, rain and penetration loss in materials that the carrier frequency plays a substantial role in establishing the link budget. Suppose that a Tx transmits $P_{\text{Tx}}$ watts of power uniformly

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Channel hardening implies the channel flutucations due to small-scale fading smooth out

On Massive MIMO, Channel Hardening and Favorable Propagation

Imagine an alien race looking at our planet from outside the solar system through a lens of time. They will notice one unmistakable direction. Our pursuit of MORE in everything. This tendency might be ingrained in the fundamental idea of life itself. To live is to grow. While our dreams for faster transportation face mechanical roadblocks from the laws of physics, technologies for faster communication are only bound by the laws of electromagnetics. Ever since we linked digital electronics to information exchange from one point to another without any physical medium, on-demand reception and transmission of data at any place

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A Tuned radio Frequency Receiver (TRF) selects the desired channel through a bandpass filter

Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receiver

The tasks of a communications receiver to demodulate the transmitted signal begin with selecting the signal within a specific bandwidth at a desired frequency, commonly known as a particular channel. In another article, we discuss specifications for a radio receiver such as dynamic range, noise floor and sensitivity. Today we discuss an architecture used in earlier generations of radios. To avoid interference from the neighboring channels, the most straightforward approach is to filter out the spectral contents outside this channel and amplify the desired signal in one or more RF amplification stages. This was one of the earliest techniques employed

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Coverage and throughput in different bands

Channel Propagation Effects in mmWave Systems

In a previous article, we have discussed in detail the free space propagation in mmWave systems. We saw that the received power at any distance is independent of the carrier frequency as long as the effective antenna aperture is taken into account. Today, we describe the role of atmospheric effects such as water vapors, oxygen, rain and penetration loss in materials that impact the signal propagation at higher carrier frequencies. Important parameters of small-scale fading in a wireless channel such as delay spread and Doppler spread are also explained in the context of mmWave systems. Atmospheric Effects In realistic channels,

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