A view of time-frequency-space grid in a communication system

How Multiple Antennas Sample the Signal

Once upon a time, an antenna was viewed as a simple device to transmit and receive an electromagnetic wave, much like a battery the sole purpose of which is to provide electrical power. A set of antennas, however, can be viewed from a new angle as follows. Sampling in Time Domain An Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is a device that samples an analog signal in time domain to create a corresponding sequence of numbers. Similarly, a Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) gets a sequence of numbers as an input to generate a reconstructed analog signal. As an example, a rectangular pulse shape is

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A general QAM detector with respective waveforms at each block

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is a spectrally efficient modulation scheme used in most of the high-speed wireless networks today. We discussed earlier that Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) transmits information through amplitude scaling of the pulse $p(nT_S)$ according to the symbol value. To understand QAM, two routes need to be traversed. Route 1 We start the first route with differentiating between baseband and passband signals. A baseband signal has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero only for frequencies around origin ($F=0$) and negligible elsewhere. An example spectral plot for a PAM waveform is shown below for 500 2-PAM symbols shaped by

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DFT-Precoded OFDM block diagram

DFT-Precoded OFDM

One of the drawbacks of an OFDM waveform is its high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). This high PAPR arises from the fact that a set of $N$ QAM symbols are taken into time domain through an inverse Fourier Transform (iFFT) operation that basically generates a combination of complex sinusoids scaled by those symbols. Due to the variations between the symbol values and the sinusoids with different frequencies, the output waveform can have a large variance in amplitudes. This reduces the power amplifier efficiency that results in faster battery drainage in a mobile terminal. The effect on base station

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Earth lies in the Goldilocks Zone of our solar system

Diversity in Wireless Communication Systems

Diversity is one of those few ideas that are extremely dumb and extremely clever at the same time. It can be explained in one sentence as well as in a whole book. The basic idea, nevertheless, is quite simple. What is Diversity? Consider the following two different cases. Many phenomena in the world need a series of outcomes to succeed. For instance, for life to exist in the cold and dark universe, we need a star to provide energy as heat. A planet is also required as a home. Furthermore, this planet must reside in the Goldilocks Zone of that

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