Lime SDR

Top 5 Software Defined Radios (SDR) for RF Experimentation

In this article, I describe 5 of the most popular SDRs available for RF experimentation today. As a 6th member of this list, I include a surprisingly common and free SDR that can be used for your fun radio projects. Table of Contents Background Where We Came From Top SDRs  5. Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP)  4. LimeSDR  3. HackRF One  2. ADALM-Pluto  1. RTL-SDR  0. A Free SDR We start with a little bit of background and where we came from. Background Software Defined Radio (SDR) has revolutionized wireless communication in the same way Microsoft revolutionized the scope of

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Bandwidth, power and DSP correspond to the traditional trio of raw materials, energy and knowledge

Why Building an SDR Requires DSP Expertise

In an introduction to signals, we discussed the idea that the any activities around us, starting from subatomic particles to massive societal networks, are generating signals all the time. Since mathematics is the language of the universe and digital signals are nothing but quantized number sequences, it is fair to say that the workings of the universe can be mapped to an infinitely large set of signals. With these number sequences in hand, an electronic computer can process the signals and either extract the information about the surrounding real world phenomena or even better influence its target environment. We saw

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Three different cases for carrier frequency offset

What is Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) and How It Distorts the Rx Symbols

In Physics, frequency in units of Hz is defined as the number of cycles per unit time. Angular frequency is the rate of change of phase of a sinusoidal waveform with units of radians/second. \begin{equation*} 2\pi f = \frac{\Delta \theta}{\Delta t} \end{equation*} where $\Delta\theta$ and $\Delta t$ are the changes in phase and time, respectively. A Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) usually arises due to two reasons. The video below also explains this concept. [Frequency mismatch between the Tx and Rx oscillators] No two devices are the same and there is always some difference between the manufacturer’s nominal specification and the

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Coefficients of a moving average filter in time domain

Moving Average Filter

The most commonly used filter in DSP applications is a moving average filter. In today’s world with extremely fast clock speeds of the microprocessors, it seems strange that an application would require simple operations. But that is exactly the case with most applications in embedded systems that run on limited battery power and consequently host small microcontrollers. For noise reduction, it can be implemented with a few adders and delay elements. For lowpass filtering, the excellent frequency domain response and substantial suppression of stopband sidelobes are less important than having a basic filtering functionality, which is where a moving average

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Known training sequence (a preamble) is prepended, or training can also be inserted periodically within the message

Basics of Synchronization

In every digital communication system, the Tx has the easier role of signal generation while the Rx has the tougher job of figuring out the intended message. Just like solving a puzzle told by someone. Estimating and compensating for the frequency, phase and timing offsets between Tx and Rx oscillators is one such challenge. The solution can be designed depending on many factors such as some part of data is known (called a ‘training sequence’) or not, the synchronizer needs to be one-shot or continuously updating, and so on. Known Data Availability Depending on the availability of known data, synchronization

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