## Diversity in Wireless Communication Systems

Diversity is one of those few ideas that are extremely dumb and extremely clever at the same time. It can be explained in one sentence as well as in a whole book. The basic idea, nevertheless, is quite simple. What is Diversity? Consider the following two different cases. Many phenomena in the world need a series of outcomes to succeed. For instance, for life to exist in the cold and dark universe, we need a star to provide energy as heat. A planet is also required as a home. Furthermore, this planet must reside in the Goldilocks Zone of that

## Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) – A Tutorial

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) is one of the most spectrally efficient modulation schemes available. Due to its constant envelope, it is resilient to non-linear distortion and was therefore chosen as the modulation technique for the GSM cell phone standard. MSK is a special case of Continuous-Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) which is a special case of a general class of modulation schemes known as Continuous-Phase Modulation (CPM). It is worth noting that CPM (and hence CPFSK) is a non-linear modulation and hence by extension MSK is a non-linear modulation as well. Nevertheless, it can also be cast as a linear

## Effect of Sampling Clock Offset on a Single-Carrier Waveform

We have discussed before the distortion caused by a symbol timing offset on the communication waveform. We have also derived a maximum likelihood estimate of the clock phase offset. In this article, we describe the impact of a sampling clock offset in a single-carrier waveform, also commonly known as a clock frequency offset or timing drift. A clock frequency offset is defined as the rate mismatch between the Tx and Rx clocks. Just like a carrier phase and frequency offset, the clock used to sample the incoming continuous-time signal at a rate $T_S=1/F_S$ contains a phase and frequency offset as