Two way transmission

The Big Picture of Localization

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) enables us to find the range of a device transmitting a wireless signal with a particular structure under some conditions. To understand how this process works, we need to look at the big picture of a localization process. Localization implies locating the unknown position of a source which can be computed in a straightforward manner if its ranges from some reference nodes can be found. Various techniques are employed for this purpose, some of which are Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), time of arrival, time difference of arrival and angle of arrival. Phase of arrival is

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Logic behind Mueller Muller TED

Mueller and Muller Timing Synchronization Algorithm

Proposed in 1976, Mueller and Muller algorithm is a timing synchronization technique that operates at symbol rate, as opposed to most other synchronization algorithms that require at least 2 samples/symbol such as early-late and Gardner timing error detectors. All of these are feedback techniques that operate within a PLL. Feedforward methods such as digital filter and square timing synchronization are also feasible due to powerful digital signal processing that avoids feedback problems such as hangups. The most confusing thing communication engineers and radio hobbyists find about Mueller and Muller algorithm algorithm is the cross product in its expression: matched filter

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Experimental setup for low SNR receiver

Design of a Low-SNR Receiver

Wireless communication is energy inefficient due to the nature of the medium that spreads out energy in an unguided manner, as opposed to guided media like optical fiber and coaxial cable. To avoid wastage of power, one solution is to lower the transmit (Tx) power but then the receiver is left with the herculean task of efficiently demodulating the receive symbols at a low SNR. This article describes the design and implementation of one such receiver. Background The physical layer of a receiver system consists of three major parts, namely the frontend, the inner receiver, and the outer receiver. The

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OFDM subcarriers in frequency domain

Advantages and Disadvantages of OFDM – A Summary

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a technique of choice for many high rate wireless communication systems. An overview of OFDM for a DSP/wireless beginner was given in this article where visualizations of how OFDM slices the spectrum into multiple subcarriers for one user was provided in detail. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) is an extension of OFDM for multiple users, i.e., it is a multiple access technology (like TDMA and CDMA from 2G and 3G cellular systems, respectively) in which the available spectrum is divided into multiple subcarriers that are shared among multiple users. This was the choice

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Flowgraph output

FSK Demodulation in GNU Radio

Frequency Modulation (FM) is one of the oldest communication techniques for high fidelity transmission. Its digital counterpart, Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), also plays a crucial role in applications requiring low receiver complexity. In an FSK scheme, digital information is transmitted by changing the frequency of a carrier signal. It can also be mixed with Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) for low-power long-range communication as used in LoRa PHY. Binary FSK Binary FSK (BFSK) is the simplest form of FSK where the two bits 0 and 1 correspond to two distinct carrier frequencies $F_0$ and $F_1$ to be sent over the air.

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